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Equivalent Circuit Models

These models use common electrical components to represent batteries.

  • Typically they run very fast and so are useful for use in larger design packages like PSPICE.
  • Battery Design Studio® is useful for characterizing the performance of these models and regressing parameters.


This model accounts for self-discharge and temperature effects. It has been used in battery management systems for estimation of state of charge.


Two time constants with equilibrium voltage expression.

USABC Lumped Parameter Model

Model is very useful for analyzing data from hybrid pulse power characterization test..


Circuit has two time constants.


Circuit with 3 time constants for modeling ultracapacitors.


Battery is modeled as resistor in series with a voltage source.