# Equivalent Circuit Models

Posted February 24th, 2009 by bdsmadmin

These models use common electrical components to represent batteries.

- Typically they run very fast and so are useful for use in larger design packages like PSPICE.
- Battery Design Studio® is useful for characterizing the performance of these models and regressing parameters.

**NiMH**

This model accounts for self-discharge and temperature effects. It has been used in battery management systems for estimation of state of charge.

**Nelson**

Two time constants with equilibrium voltage expression.

**USABC Lumped Parameter Model**

Model is very useful for analyzing data from hybrid pulse power characterization test..

**NREL-2RC**

Circuit has two time constants.

**UCap3RC**

Circuit with 3 time constants for modeling ultracapacitors.

**Rint**

Battery is modeled as resistor in series with a voltage source.